risk. However, moderate or large risks can be ruled out with reasonable confidence when studies with robust and appropriate research designs and analyses have been conducted in populations with relevant exposures. Meaningful differences in risk need to be effectively communicated to the public, health care providers, and policy makers so that limited funds can be invested in the most promising research and intervention strategies.
Recommendation 13: Breast cancer researchers and research funders should pursue research to identify the most effective ways of communicating accurate breast cancer risk information and statistics to the general public, health care professionals, and policy makers.
Because people differ in their health literacy, their numeracy (ability to understand numerical information), and in their preferred modes of learning, multiple communication strategies, modes, and messaging tactics will be needed to reach diverse communities and stakeholders. Among the topics that should receive attention in this research are
• perception and comprehension of different ways to present messages (numbers, graphs, text), modalities of communication (audio, video, print, face-to-face, and multiple modalities, etc.), as well as the content of the messages themselves;
• ways that personal experiences (e.g., family history) affect the ability to absorb messages;
• determination of the similarities and differences in how individuals from diverse racial, ethnic, educational, and occupational groups understand and respond to breast cancer risk information that is presented various ways;
• comprehension of terms such as relative risks, absolute risks, and hazards;
• ways to improve translation of research results into messages that can effectively convey the implications of the results for women in different risk categories, women from diverse racial and ethnic groups, health care providers, and public health decision makers; and
Research Paper on Breast Cancer
How to start a research paper on breast cancer
The first is to think about the introductory part of the research paper on breast cancer that aims to catch the eyes of the reader. Researching is important to know more about the prevalence of breast cancer, the cause, the prevalence, and the impact on the population. The rationale is to gain more knowledge about breast cancer that is potentially hazardous to the longevity and the health and well-being of the person.
Tips on how to start
- A research paper must have an introduction to introduce the topic that will try to familiarize the leaders about the topic that will be discussed.
- The researcher should collect important data to ensure that the research process is ready to consolidate and present it to the audience.
- There should be an outline for each research study on a certain topic such as breast cancer as one of the most dangerous diseases in the world today.
- Identify what method of analysis will be applied to the research paper if it is either qualitative or quantitative.
- A research paper must have at least a thesis statement that provides a formal way to introduce the topic to the readers.
Example of an outline
A. Background about breast cancer
B. Problem statement about breast cancer
C. History of breast cancer
II. Body Section
A. Factors affecting breast cancer
B. Why breast cancer is a concerning disease
III. Body Section
A. Complications of breast cancer
B. Pathophysiology of breasts with cancer
IV. Body Section
A. Diagnostic testing
B. Breast cancer treatment
C. Prevention against breast cancer
A. Relating the background of the story
B. Restating the thesis.
Example of a breast cancer research paper thesis
Women who fail to conduct breast self-assessment indicate lack of awareness about the risk of developing breast cancer. Others do not undergo a regular check-up to determine if they are either at risk or not for developing breast cancer. Females only notice that they are now suffering if they are already feeling the signs and symptoms until it is already too late to undergo for treatment.
Example of introduction
Breast cancer is defined as the process of suffering from both benign and malignant tumors on either or both of the breasts of the patient. This is caused by either a modifiable or nonmodifiable risk factor which concerns with the severity and the prevalence on the presence of cancer cells on the affected parts of the body. Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease, especially if the stage of the disease is already on its terminal stage without being screened (Siu, 2016). The cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, causing another form of infection to the affected tissue or organ of the body. This paper will be discussing the prevalence rate, mortality, and morbidity of breast cancer, which affects millions of patients around the world.
How to write body paragraphs for a research paper on breast cancer
Every researcher should know that the body paragraph of every research paper is important because it seeks to expound the main discussion of the subject. The body is where the main topic is being discussed. Researchers will be able to define, relate examples, and its impacts on the target individuals regarding the issues that are relevant to the research topic.
Tips on body writing
- The body should be segmented into different parts that separately discuss several key issues relevant to the main subject of the study.
- Each segment should have a literature study to further explain the significance of the main subject matter to different kinds of topics being discussed from the paper.
- The body needs credible sources as the researcher explains the relevance of the subject matter through specific details that are connected with the research topic.
- Each discussion from every segment of the research should be supported with examples to narrate the whole scenario of the topic being discussed.
- Each discussion should be always concise and not be beating around the bush.
- Provide a detailed outline of the research regarding the pertinent data being discussed.
- Always use a concise way of concluding each paragraph.
- State your final thoughts about the main subject of the topic such as the impact of breast cancer on the society.
- Reveal insight corresponding to the issue is associated with the relevance of breast cancer prevalence to the society.
- Recommendations should be applied for the concluding paragraph, stating what can be done to prevent breast cancer development to the society.
- Check if the sources exist online so that it is easier for the audience to have an access to the facts.
- Refer to your research adviser to know other issues that are needed to be changed or revised.
- Never consider your paper as the final output prior to your defense.
- Proofread multiple times as possible before submitting to the adviser or prior to defense.
- Biswas A, Oh PI, Faulkner GE, Bajaj RR, Silver MA, Mitchell MS & Alter DA (2015). “Sedentary Time and Its Association With Risk for Disease Incidence, Mortality, and Hospitalization in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (2): 123–32.
- Gøtzsche PC, &Jørgensen KJ (2013). “Screening for breast cancer with mammography.”. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 6: CD001877.
- Moyer VA (2013). “Medications for Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 159: 698–708.
- Siu, Albert L. (12 January 2016). “Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 164: 279–96.
Example of the 1st body paragraph
The modifiable cause of breast cancer is related to the lifestyle of the patient, which affects their health. This includes their sedentary lifestyle, which plays an important role in limiting their proactive lifestyle, impacting their health and longevity. The non-modifiable factor is attributed to their gender as a female because most sufferers of breast cancers are all females. Heredity and age is also an inevitable scenario, impacting the risk of developing similar health care situation to the next generation kin of the patients (Biswas, Oh, Faulkner, Bajaj, Silver, Mitchell & Alter, 2015).
Example of the 2nd body paragraph
Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease of the human body. Visible signs and symptoms include unusual enlargement of the breast, lump on the breast, tenderness of the breast, and unusual discharges from the breast. If left untreated, palliative care is the only applicable treatment applied to the patient (Moyer, 2013).
Example of the 3rd body paragraph
Surgical removal of the cancerous cyst is recommended for patients suffering from the disease. This includes double mastectomy so that the patient’s affected organs and tissues will no longer infect other parts of the body. Radiation or chemotherapy is the most common treatment applied to the patient along with the medication regimen as well as screening procedures (Gotzsche & Jorgensen, 2013).
How to finish a research paper on breast cancer
It is best to finish the research paper with wrapping up what has been said and giving recommendations. This is to end the conversation between a reader and the presented research.
Tips on conclusion writing
Example of a conclusion
It has been concluded that breast cancer is prevalent if the patient was not aware of the proper handling of diet management and having an uncontrollable sedentary lifestyle. Even if you are at risk, breast cancer is still a disease that could affect your health and longevity. We should realize that breast cancer is a life-threatening disease and could happen to anyone who was practicing a poor healthy lifestyle. Preventive measures such as engaging in a productive dissemination and awareness program are important to increase the number of individuals who are willing to cooperate with health care professionals.
Tips on research paper revision
It is important to proofread before finalizing the paper – this is to check all grammatical inconsistencies or grammars.