Writing Cover Letters
What is a cover letter?
To be considered for almost any position, you will need to write a letter of application. Such a letter introduces you, explains your purpose for writing, highlights a few of your experiences or skills, and requests an opportunity to meet personally with the potential employer.
Precisely because this letter is your introduction to an employer and because first impressions count, you should take great care to write an impressive and effective letter. Remember that the letter not only tells of your accomplishments but also reveals how effectively you can communicate.
The appropriate content, format, and tone for application letters vary according to the position and the personality of the applicant. Thus you will want to ask several people (if possible) who have had experience in obtaining jobs or in hiring in your field to critique a draft of your letter and to offer suggestions for revision.
Despite the differences in what constitutes a good application letter, the suggestions on these pages apply generally.
What to include in a cover letter
Try to limit your letter to a single page. Be succinct.
Assess the employer's needs and your skills. Then try to match them in the letter in a way that will appeal to the employer's self-interest.
As much as possible, tailor your letter to each job opportunity. Demonstrate, if possible, some knowledge of the organization to which you are applying.
Write in a style that is mature but clear; avoid long and intricate sentences and paragraphs; avoid jargon. Use action verbs and the active voice; convey confidence, optimism, and enthusiasm coupled with respect and professionalism.
Show some personality, but avoid hard-sell, gimmicky, or unorthodox letters. Start fast; attract interest immediately. For more information see Business Letter Format.
Arrange the points in a logical sequence; organize each paragraph around a main point.
How to organize a cover letter
Below is one possible way to arrange the content of your cover letter.
State why you are writing.
Establish a point of contact (advertisement in a specific place for a specific position; a particular person's suggestion that you write): give some brief idea of who you are (a Senior engineering student at UW; a recent Ph.D. in History).
Highlight a few of the most salient points from your enclosed resume.
Arouse your reader's curiosity by mentioning points that are likely to be important for the position you are seeking.
Show how your education and experience suit the requirements of the position, and, by elaborating on a few points from your resume, explain what you could contribute to the organization.
(Your letter should complement, not restate, your resume.)
Stress action. Politely request an interview at the employer's convenience.
Indicate what supplementary material is being sent under separate cover and offer to provide additional information (a portfolio, a writing sample, a sample publication, a dossier, an audition tape), and explain how it can be obtained.
Thank the reader for his/her consideration and indicate that you are looking forward to hearing from him/her.
Questions to guide your writing
Who is my audience?
What is my objective?
What are the objectives and needs of my audience?
How can I best express my objective in relationship to my audience's objectives and needs?
What specific benefits can I offer to my audience and how can I best express them?
What opening sentence and paragraph will grab the attention of my audience in a positive manner and invite them to read further?
How can I maintain and heighten the interest and desire of the reader throughout the letter?
What evidence can I present of my value to my audience?
If a resume is enclosed with the letter, how can I best make the letter advertise the resume?
What closing sentence or paragraph will best assure the reader of my capabilities and persuade him or her to contact me for further information?
Is the letter my best professional effort?
Have I spent sufficient time drafting, revising, and proofreading the letter?
*From Ronald L. Kraunich, William J. Bauis. High Impact Resumes & Letters. Virginia Beach, VA: Impact Publications, 1982.
How to format a cover letter
Type each letter individually, or use a word processor.
Use good quality bond paper.
Whenever possible, address each employer by name and title.
Each letter should be grammatically correct, properly punctuated, and perfectly spelled. It also should be immaculately clean and free of errors. Proofread carefully!
Use conventional business correspondence form. If you are not certain of how to do this, ask for help at the Writing Center.
For further information on cover letters contact the Career Advising and Planning Services and take a look at our workshp on Writing Resumes and Cover Letters (NB: this course not offered during the summer).
Cover letter format and content advice tips
Wondering how to write a cover letter? Make sure you can answer “yes” to the questions on this checklist.
Many job seekers struggle with how to write a cover letter, as well as cover letter format, but this skill can be learned and perfected. The time and effort will pay off, because a great cover letter can increase your odds of getting a job interview.
These cover letter tips can help your job application standout. Make sure you can answer “yes” to the questions on this checklist:
- Does your cover letter have a strong opening paragraph, communicating your job target and key strengths within the first few lines of text?
- Does your cover letter conform to a standard business letter format? (See our cover letter examples.)
- Is your cover letter addressed to a specific individual, if the name is available?
- Does the body of your cover letter express how you would benefit the employer if you were hired?
- Do you avoid starting every sentence with “I” or “my” so you can focus more on the employer’s requirements and not your own?
- Do you demonstrate your expertise by using industry-specific language?
- Do you include examples of your accomplishments so employers can see you have a proven track record?
- Is the content engaging and relevant to hiring managers’ needs?
- Is the cover letter succinct, containing just enough information to entice the reader to review your resume?
- Did you include all information that was requested, such as a job reference number, employment availability date and salary requirements?
- Is the content unique? Did you avoid copying text from your resume verbatim?
- Does your cover letter sound genuine? Does it reflect your personality and make you seem likeable and approachable?
- Did you proofread your cover letter to ensure that it’s free of spelling, grammar, syntax and formatting errors?
- Does the writing style and design coordinate with the resume, such as by using the same font and layout style?
- Did you provide an easy way for employers to contact you, such as a direct phone line and email address?
- Does your cover letter end with a call to action, confidently requesting an interview?
- Did you remember to sign your letter if you’re mailing a hard copy?